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PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) is a small bioactive, non-vitamin compound which acts as a REDOX (reduction-oxidation) agent and supports mitochondrial function (1).
PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) Benefits
- Supports mitochondrial function (ref)*
- Promotes cognitive function while aging (ref)*
- May improve sleep quality (ref)*
- Promotes healthy cholesterol levels (ref)*
PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) is emerging as a subject of interest in the medical community, but thus far, there has not been a large amount of research or trials conducted with humans, except for those studies referenced above.*
The following are examples of dynamics associated with PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) through the animal model and may not be representative of the effects in the human body:
- May reduce oxidative stress (in rats)(ref)*
PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) Mode of Action
PQQ is a quinone molecule that is found in food sources and mammalian tissue. The highest food sources are fermented soybeans (natto), spinach, green soybeans, field mustard, tofu, green tea, green peppers, kiwi fruits, parsley, and human breast milk (1).
PQQ acts as a REDOX agent by reducing oxidants and is recycled back into glutathione (the master antioxidant). PQQ can be recycled many thousands of cycles before the end of its function. It was first believed to be a vitamin but is now regarded as a bioactive non-vitamin compound (1).
Other common REDOX agent supplements include Vitamin C and alpha-lipoic acid. PQQ works by its modification of REDOX proteins in the cell (1).
PQQ is chemically neuroprotective and regulates a glutamate receptor, NMDA, by inhibiting overexertion of the NMDA signals which can be toxic to the brain. PQQ injected into the brain is accepted as a neuroprotectant, but it is not clear if oral supplementation carries the same benefit (1).
PQQ protects mitochondria in two ways: first, it maintains mitochondrial mass. Research in vitro has demonstrated that PQQ preserves mitochondria by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting the death of cells (1). Secondly, it appears from research in animals that PQQ can stimulate mitochondrial regeneration by stimulating phosphorylation of a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating the promotion of a pathway for PGC-1a which is known to control mitochondrial biogenesis (2).
PQQ supports cognitive function in compromised populations, such as the elderly or those individuals with a cognitive impairment, rather than in healthy individuals (1).
PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) Dosage
Pure Nootropics PQQ provides 20 mg per 1 capsule. Suggested use for adults is 1 capsule by mouth daily with a meal.
If you are taking any medications, always consult with you Healthcare Practitioner before beginning any new supplement.
PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) Side Effects & Toxicity
PQQ is a fairly new supplement and there are few long-term clinical trials detailing the effects on humans.
In rats, PQQ is associated with kidney and liver toxicities, but a consumption of 20 mg for a 150 lb human during a one-week period has been determined to be safe. It is best to not “superload” this supplement until further research is available (1).
In rats, PQQ was determined to have a No Observed Adverse Effect level of 100mg/kg bodyweight/day. A toxic dose was achieved in male rats at 1000-2000 mg/kg bodyweight and at 500-1000 mg/kg bodyweight/day in female rats (3).